Hematite, which is also known as the Chinese iron stone to the Arabs, is one of the types of gemstones with thick crystals, grayish-black color, and tinged with red-brown color in its raw form. It was also found on the surface of Mars. In the first expedition of mobiles that have mini-labs on board in the year 2001, which is formed from iron(III) oxide and its hardness is estimated between 5.5 to . 6.5 on the Mohs scale of hardness. It is a family of natural metal oxides and has a metallic luster unlike most other types of iron. It also has a high density and a high rate of refraction of light compared to aluminum oxide, zircon and even diamond.
Hematite stone “Chinese iron” has a chemical formula of Fe2O3 and it does not penetrate light, it is completely opaque This is one of its distinguishing features, unless it is cut in the form of low-thickness slices, and it is found in many places under the soil and in rocks, and it is usually present with other minerals, including pyrite and marxite. Calcite and albite. When looking at its crystal structure, we find that besides that it is characterized by thickness, it is identical to the composition of the mineral aluminium and crystal corundum.
|stone name||Chinese iron, hematite|
|chemical classification||oxide metals|
|degree of hardness||5.5 to 6.5 mo|
|refractive index||3.150 to 3.220
2.870 to 2.940
|Cleavage||There is no|
|Fracture||Varied, under oyster|
|configuration||sedimentary sediments, igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, lava|
The apparent characteristics of the Chinese iron stone “Hematite”
This stone is superficially similar to many other gemstones, but it differs in terms of composition, such as pyrite and marxite stones, which are apparently similar in their metallic luster and are completely different in their chemical composition. It is worth noting that the impurities of the Chinese iron stone may be an influential factor in many cases in changing the properties of other gemstones in terms of color, such as what happens in garnet and sapphire stones.
Characteristics of the Chinese iron stone
- The name of the stone
- Chinese iron, hematite Quality semi-cream
- CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION
- Oxides Metals Formula Chemical Fe2 O3
- degree of hardness 5.5 to 6.5 MOS
- Refractive index 3 . until 3.90 2. 940 up to 2.1291
- specific density 5. 26 Crystal System Hexa Cleavage nothing
- Varied, under Oysters Sparkle Metallic, Shining Transparency opaque
- Gray, Black
Sedimentary sediments, igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, lava Hematite consists of about % Iron and 11 % Oxygen by weight. Like most natural substances, it is rarely found in this pure composition. This is particularly true of sedimentary deposits where hematite is formed by inorganic or biological precipitation in a body of water.
Minor precipitation can add clay minerals to iron oxide. Accidental deposition can also cause the sediments to contain alternating combinations of iron oxide and shale. Silica can be added in the form of jasper, chert or chalcedony by chemical or biological processes in small quantities.
- Natural Black Hematite Ring Shape
- Chinese iron stone colors
- the black
- dark red Reddish brown
Chinese iron extraction places
Chinese (natural) ironHematite represents the main source in the iron industry in the United States of America, with an estimated % of the extracted there, and hematite or Chinese iron stone is extracted in many countries of the world, here are the places where there are stone mines Chinese iron and it is extracted as follows:
- Brazil (State of Minas)
- England (County of Cumbria)
- Italy (Elba Island)(Bangladesh)
- Morocco, West, sunset
- North Africa
- New Zealand
- Czech Republic
United States of America (Minnesota, Michigan, Arizona and New York) Hematite is the most important iron ore in the world. Although magnetite is higher in iron and is easier to process, hematite is the main ore because it is more abundant and is found in deposits in many parts of the world.(Illustrative photo of a natural Chinese iron ring)) Hematite is mined in some of the largest mines in the world. These mines require billions of dollars in investment, some of which will remove more than million tons of ore annually. These open-pit mines can be hundreds to thousands of feet deep and several miles wide by the time the work has been completed. Presence of hematite (Chinese iron) on Mars
I discovered NASA states that hematite is one of the most abundant minerals in rocks and soils on Mars. ) The abundance of hematite in the rocks of Mars and the surface material gives it a brownish-brown colour. This is the reason why the planet appears red in the night sky.
Iron places Chinese (Hematite)
Uses of Chinese iron stone
Primitive people discovered that they could Crush the hematite and mix it with a liquid to use as a paint or cosmetic. Cave paintings dating back to 70 A thousand years ago.
Hematite is the material used to make well-known polishing compounds. Use on a soft cloth to polish gold and silver jewelry.Hematite is still one of the most important pigment minerals. It has been extracted from many locations around the world and is widely traded as a red dye. During the Renaissance, when many painters began to use oils and canvas, hematite was one of the most important pigments. The color of hematite was opaque and permanent. It can be mixed with white pigment to produce a variety of pinks that were used to paint flesh and blood.Hematite powder is used to polish brass and other soft metals.
It can be added to polish copper peel casings.
Used in the production of cabochons, beads, small carvings and tumbled stones and other items.
A very dense, inexpensive and effective X-ray blocker. That’s why it is used for radiation protection around medical and scientific equipment. Also, the low cost and high density of hematite and other iron ores make it
Useful for connecting ships in ports.Pulverized coal, which has very low specific gravity, is placed on the heavy liquid and the light clean coal floats, while the high specific gravity impurities as pyrite sink.
Hematite can also be ground into a fine powder that, when mixed with water, makes a very high gravitational liquid. These fluids are used in the buoyancy treatment of coal and other mineral materials.
Uses of Chinese iron (Hematite) in all fields
How is hematite
(Hematite is found as a base mineral and as a metamorphic product in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.
Hematite can crystallize during magma differentiation or precipitate from hydrothermal fluids that move through It can also form during contact metamorphism when hot magma interacts with neighboring rocks.
The most important hematite deposits were formed in sedimentary environments. About 2.4 billion years ago, when Earth’s oceans were rich in dissolved iron, very little free oxygen was present in the water. While a group of cyanobacteria capable of photosynthesis in water, the bacteria used sunlight as an energy source to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates, oxygen and water. This reaction released the first free oxygen into the ocean environment.The new oxygen was immediately combined with iron to form hematite, which sank to the bottom of the sea floor.
Soon the process of photosynthesis was taking place in many parts of the Earth’s oceans, and extensive hematite deposits accumulated on the sea floor.
This deposition lasted for hundreds of millions of years – from about 2.4 to 1.8 million years ago.
This allowed the formation of iron deposits with a thickness of hundreds to several thousand feet which are laterally fixed over hundreds to thousands of square miles. They constitute some of the largest rock formations in the Earth’s rock record.
Many sedimentary hematite deposits contain both hematite and magnetite in addition to other iron minerals.These are often in close association, and the ore is mined, crushed, and processed to recover both minerals. Historically, not much hematite was mined and was discarded.
History of the hematite stone “Chinese iron”
Appearance of hematite stone – Chinese iron ore
The name hematite comes from the Greek word “blood” due to the presence of the red color in some of its types. It should be noted here that it should not be confused with the famous blood stone, which is one of the types quartz; When we investigate the source and meaning of the word hematite in English, we find that it is descended from the French spelling similar to it, as well as from the Latin word “lapis hematites” in the fifteenth century, which was also derived from the ancient Greek word meaning “red blood stone.” When we investigate the source of the name “Chinese Iron Stone” in Arabic, we find that it refers to the cultural and commercial exchange between the Arab region and China. Although this stone is called “Chinese”, its production is not limited only to China, but extends to many countries of the world as we mentioned in the places where it was found and extracted.
It is interesting to note that this stone was used by man in the past Since over 3517 A year ago, in the chalk inscriptions on the walls of caves and making drawings, deposits of this stone were also found dating back to
. A year ago in Poland, in addition to other deposits in Bulgaria dating back to 164000 BC
Large quantities of hematite have been found in mines located on Elba Island in the Mediterranean. It is worth noting that the use of this stone in the dye industry has been common in the past, but recently, other, more economically viable alternatives have been sought. During the Victorian period for its use in gold plating and the manufacture of precious stones, as well as making decoration, engravings and necklaces.
Beliefs and Legends about the Chinese Iron Stone
Illustration of two rings made of Chinese iron (Hematite)
There are many beliefs and legends about the benefits of hematite stone, especially the curative and healing, as it was known for its ability to improve blood flow and oxygen in the body, in addition to eliminating the symptoms of fever and inflammation and spreading a feeling of comfort and reassurance. in the body.
It was also known to help calm the mind, improve focus and think wisely according to beliefs. The ancient Chinese, as well as broadcasting a feeling of energy and health in the body when wearing it.
Increased energy in the body and activity
Balance energy and get rid of negative energy in the body
Getting rid of psychological stress and the constant feeling of stressHelps focus and clear the mind
Improving blood flow in the body
Getting rid of pain in the body
Improving the functions of the body’s systems
Calm the nerves and mind
Increase creativity and creative skillsHelps motivate the achievement of goalsThe Chinese iron stone symbolizes the planet Mars in the field of astronomy, and is known in mythology The Arabic word for its ability to protect, spread blessings and prevent envy, according to what was mentioned in some ancient writings.
Distinguishing and knowing hematite stone “Chinese iron”
Two stones Chinese iron or hematite
The process of identifying hematite stone and distinguishing it from other stones is a very easy process compared to other gemstones, as it is It is unlikely that it is mixed with any of the other stones. It is recognizable by its high density and metallic luster similar to that of iron. While if it is not polished, it can be recognized by its red-brown color.
The composition of hematite “Chinese iron” is also three-sided, like sapphires and sapphires. Besides, its hardness is stronger than that of pure iron, similar to opal and turquoise. It should be noted here that hematite is sometimes confused with hematin, which is one of the types of hematite that is characterized by magnetism, as natural hematite is not characterized by magnetism, but it can be made magnetized by subjecting it to a process consisting of heating and then cooling while in contact with a strong magnet. )
Hematite stone jewelry “Chinese iron”
Appearance of a number of hematite stone jewelry “Chinese iron”
Hematite or Chinese iron stone is one of the stones that are not commonly used in the manufacture of jewelry and gemstones in various countries of the world, with the exception of some Arab countries that are in great demand for this type of stones Because of the widespread beliefs and legends about its benefits.
Hematite stone “Chinese iron” is usually not processed before it is used in the jewelry industry However, it is customary to treat it with heat when used in the manufacture of various commercial jewelry.
This stone may be found in a variety of jewellery, ranging from inlay rings to necklaces and amulets. In terms of price, it is available in many stores for less than a lot of dollars, and it is purchased based on its size rather than its weight in carats, and it should be noted that the inscriptions and the ring itself or the ring, whether it is made of gold or silver, is a factor affecting the price of the ring. Take this into account.
On the surface of this stone, it is common to find inscriptions, whether sentences or designs relating to the tales prevalent in the locations where it is marketed.
It is worth noting that although hematite is not as hard as others, it is characterized by its ability to withstand long periods of time, and is especially suitable in the manufacture of men’s jewelry, including neckties and elegant buttons.
It is recommended that ultrasound, steam, chemicals, acids, and active liquids be avoided when cleaning the Chinese iron stone “Hematite,” which is washed with a little warm water on a piece of cloth, then dried thoroughly and kept away from valuable stones. Other.