The sapphire stone formula is aluminum oxide (AL2O3), which is the second hardest natural gemstone after diamond, as it is known in mineral circles, formed by both volcanic processes in the depths of the earth and high pressure and temperature ( changing process conditions). Wherever the magma is liquid in the depths of the earth, it cools slowly and the minerals dissolved in it also cool and crystallize.
The purest and most transparent forms of sapphire are formed by the crystallization process of minerals during the transformation of rocks whose origins are igneous rocks. Needless to say, this process does not start and end overnight, as it takes millions of years, and there are a few places in the world with rocky outcrops where these rare crystals are exposed to weathering.
The pure form of sapphire is transparent and colorless, but the mineral impurities that seep into the stone, corundum, give the stone its brilliant colours. The distinctive colors of many gemstones are also formed due to the presence of transition metals such as impurities in transparent crystal arrays, the so-called crystal field, or the effect of the lignin field (a molecule fuses with another molecule).
Sapphire appears in many Different colors, and each of these colors is of high value, but on the condition that it is free from sediment, in addition to the condition that it is transparent. When small amounts of titanium and iron enter the matrix of corundum, it forms a blue sapphire, which is the common color of sapphire stone. Sapphires are the gemstones that we often see in blue in jewelry, and the color ranges from pale blue to icy blue and dark to cobalt blue. However, did you know that sapphires may appear in other colors? The blue color is the only option that is most appreciated in the sapphire stone. Sapphires also come in rose-orange, gold, white, and even black. The natural crystal shape of sapphire stone is called a trigonal shape (a three-sided prism). Some of the more important varieties of sapphire also form with rutile (the raw form of titanium) precipitates due to the reflection of light in the shape of a six-point star, creating what is known as . Star Sapphire . Known as a cluster of stars, this star shape is less pure than other sapphires. All colors of the clear aluminum oxide form are also known as sapphire stones. However, if the appropriate amounts of chromium are found in the corundum, in this case, the ruby stone is formed in its dark red color.
Now in the modern era, the primary deposits of high quality sapphire are only found in a few places; Mainly in Southeast Asia, East Africa and the islands of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and Madagascar. The answer lies in what happens inside the earth to form these precious stones and then transfer them to its surface varies from place to place and from one country to another. But the composition and its modality remain the same no matter where the places are. At some point millions of years ago, the rocks within the Earth’s crust were subjected to intense pressure and temperature, which led to the recombination of atoms. In metamorphic rocks , which included ruby and sapphire (corundum). At a later time, the crustal plates moved and volcanoes erupted, which led to the transfer of these precious stones to the surface of the earth .
It is worth noting, that the details of the stones’ transfer to the surface differ from country to another. Some sapphires are found in high-quality igneous and metamorphic rocks called gneiss and granolite, which are found in Sri Lanka, India, Madagascar and East Africa. These stones are formed in most cases in depths of up to 6- . A tilt in the Earth’s crust , and at a high pressure and temperature that exceeds 800 a degree of metamorphic sedimentary rocks (precipitated water) such as silt stone and oil shale . The most famous deposits of sapphire-corundum that were found consist of sediments found in Kashmir, Burma and Sri Lanka (Ceylon). How is the sapphire stone extracted
There are now three basic ways of sapphire extraction. There are open or shallow excavation mines in certain nations such as Sri Lanka and Madagascar, as well as bigger commercial mines in countries like as Australia and Thailand where sapphire reserves are located. The mines may be considerable in size and depth depending on the quality of the stone and its commercial grade. It is also worth noting that these mines are operated by major corporations. Finally, high-pressure stone quarrying is the worst method of extraction practised in South America and several African nations today. Despite its shortcomings, this approach may provide significant numbers of raw gemstones; nonetheless, it is hazardous to the environment, thus it is recommended to utilise any of the other ways.