Gemstones are a valuable object of acquisition for most of us, starting from the search for these valuable gems in the depths of the earth under the earth’s crust to going out on a tour to acquire them, as this is one of the famous hobbies of many individuals around the world, the process of mining is About gemstones is very complex and cumbersome as you need to make and save many valuable resources such as time, effort, tools and sufficient knowledge. There are several different ways to extract gemstones from nature, the appropriate mining method is chosen based on the variables in each case, but whatever the method or method used, it costs a lot of money and resources, so it is not easy to take action to start mining.
The entire process of mining gemstones is very difficult and complex, as despite the efforts of many funds, resources and effort, the results are still uncertain, many cases face failure and loss of hope because the success rate is significantly less than the failure rate. . In order to reach positive results, before the start of mining operations, a geological survey must be carried out on the warehouses and contents of that area of materials, in addition to sufficient knowledge and knowledge of the characteristics of the stone to be extracted and the application of the latest discovered methods and methods. The way to mining gemstones is through modern technical means and systems, but as we know the traditional methods are particularly unique and cannot be denied even by modern means developed by scientists.
Mining is divided into two types. The first type is mining on the surface of the earth’s crust, while the second type is mining in the depth of the earth’s crust. Usually, mining on the surface is simpler and has positive results that are not easily achieved in the case of mining. down the earth. It is more expensive to enumerate below the surface of the earth because
takes longer work time
For mining below the surface of the earth requires modern and more complex tools
There are higher costs resulting from additional activities such as pumping, electric power, drilling and excavation
Surface mining is carried out in order to obtain gemstones from rocks close to the surface of the earth. 6 different types of surface mining can be performed. The appropriate method is selected based on the total cost and time. Those means are:
1. Hydraulic Mining
in This method uses jets of water in order to separate the gemstones from the raw material, where the miners direct the water jets appropriately on the places that allow the highest water diffusion through pressure and then direct them to one of the channels. The pressure of the water breaks the medium and small rocks and shovels the large parts until the gems are separated from them. This mining process is dangerous to the environment as it usually destroys mountains and inundates rivers. It should be noted that surface mining was discovered in and it continued until 690 Until dependence on it ceased due to catastrophic consequences for the environment and the beauty of nature.
2. Filter rivers
filter Rivers are one of the distinguished mining methods in which a specialized pot is used that is exposed to the current of the river until it is filled with the remains of stones and pebbles that it carries, and then it is subjected to examination and scrutiny, where the possibility of the presence of one of the gems and precious stones is possible. The best places to find a stock of gravel are clearly on the banks of the rivers from which the gem is extracted. The way to do this is simple as you prepare a large pot (you can use one of the old cooking utensils) and then fill it with water and then make a vibrating movement in order to settle the heavy items at the bottom of the pot and make the light items at the top to drift, this process is repeated over and over until you have the amount One or two teaspoons of stone concentrations in the container.
The remaining concentrations can then be transferred to a different container until it is cleaned and examined more accurately to determine its quality and quality, and then prepared for storage.
3. Open Pit Mining
This mining can only be carried out under the supervision and guidance of a specialist with experience in gemology, where he first determines the location of mining based on several elements including rocks and minerals below the surface of the soil, in addition to comparing this with the cost of mining and its impact on the environment. The monetary value of stones and minerals bears fruit for several years, so when mining will result in a profit, it will be implemented immediately.
After the location is determined, the process of removing the upper layers of the soil surface begins, layer after layer, until reaching to the rocks. After that, the rocks are removed and examined for precious stones, and then sent to another stage in order to be examined better. Sometimes explosives such as dynamite are used in order to reach deeper layers and obtain more rocks, so that the shape of the place turns into a wide pit, as shown in the attached picture.
4. Strip mining
Operations Very similar to open pit mining operations, after locating the mining work begins to remove trees and obstacles from it with the help of bulldozers and gigantic trolleys and then the remains are disposed of in a nearby area. Many small holes are drilled in the rocks, taking into account the presence of space between them, and then dynamite is placed in them until they are detonated and transformed into small pieces of rocks with precious stones. The rough rocks are sent for further examination on another stage. This type of mining takes place on the basis of long bars, so it is called strip mining. Once the first bar ends, it moves to the next until the work site is configured.
5. Mountaintop removal mining
(In this method of mining, the top of the mountain is cleaned by removing trees and weeds, and then dynamite is used at the top of the mountain and then blown up to make sweat or stumps. This leads to obtaining huge pieces of rock containing quantities of precious stones that have not been examined and extracted. The resulting dust is dumped into the adjacent plains by bulldozers and trucks.
Mining method This is one of its most prominent features that its negative impact on the environment is low compared to other methods, as the rocks extracted from those mines are used in the construction of buildings. Thus, this method of quarrying is based on the reuse of rocks. Where excavation is carried out inside the rocks in order to use the resulting products in the cement industry. It is also detonated with dynamite in order to use the results in work including preparing floors and kitchens. After obtaining the rocks in the previous method, they are subjected to examination and determine whether they contain gemstones or not, and then they are sent for reuse for the purposes we referred to.
Mining below the Earth’s surface Underground mining is done when above-ground mining is not available or will not bear good fruit, however valuable gemstones are mostly found by underground mining The earth’s surface. In this method, miners make chambers and channels under the ground and then expand deeper and deeper into them. Mining is carried out below the surface of the earth in several ways and means as follows.
1. Well Mining
We may deduce from the term that it is likely and implies to conduct the task of deep digging in the earth on the vast territory. There are gigantic deep tubes (with adequate space for water to flow through them) in these pits through which water is driven down by the force of pressure, colliding with the rocks below and breaking them. The water combines with the pebbles, dust, and dirt and is then suctioned and pushed back to the surface, where it is kept in special warehouses. Unwanted water is removed, and the gemstone-screened rocks are saved. This strategy is particularly suited and ecologically beneficial since it allows for a smooth transition from one location to another.
2. Drift mining
is done Mining on one side of the mountain where the rocks are identified on the sides and then holes are made under the identified rocks. These openings are made horizontally and are called tunnels/drifts. By drifts, the desired material is obtained by using the effect of gravitational forces to fall down easily. This is one of the least expensive and most economical mining methods, and leads to good results as well.
3. Axes Mining
in In this method, a number of tunnels are created to the bottom of the mountain and there are elevators down and up. By axial vertical tunnels, two axes are created. The first is used for the movement of miners inside so that they can fetch the materials. The second is in which small tunnels are made with axes in order to transport and examine rocks. This method is considered rather expensive.
4. Slope Mining
Mining The ramp has axes, but those axes are created inclined and parallel to the ground. Usually, this mining is resorted to when it is not possible to do the work of the axes in a straight line and thus it has earned the name of the slope of the slope. The channels are not very deep for the purpose of mining for gems. The rocks are extracted abroad by conveyors.
5. Hard rock mining
The form of a giant machine that crushes rocks to dig a mine
Like pivot mining, canals are made into land rather than mountains. In the beginning, a small hole is made, referred to as for later, it is made at great depths vertically to the bottom. Using explosives such as dynamite. Tunnels are called axes, like many other axes that are made, each axis has a special purpose. Like the movement of miners in and out of the mine, another may be used in the process of regulating the air circulation. Hard rock mining is one of the most dangerous mining methods known so far.
After being carried by truck, medium and small pebbles are brought to designated locations for precious stone testing. The removed stones and jewels are then subjected to further operations such as cleaning, cutting, and polishing. So that we may ultimately get exquisite diamonds made from scratch after many efforts and stages till they are ready.